The study aimed to investigate the effects of short, practical meditation practices on cognitive functioning in individuals with no prior experience in meditation. Participants between the ages of 18 and 45 were randomly assigned to either a 13-minute daily guided meditation session or a 13-minute daily podcast listening session (control group) for a total of 8 weeks. The study examined the impact of daily meditation practice on mood, prefrontal and hippocampal functioning, baseline cortisol levels, and emotional regulation using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The results indicated that 8 weeks of brief, daily meditation led to a decrease in negative mood state, improved attention, working memory, and recognition memory, as well as reduced state anxiety scores during the TSST compared to the control group. The study also highlighted that changes in emotional regulation due to meditation were more strongly associated with improved affective state rather than cognitive enhancements. These findings suggest that even short daily meditation practices can yield similar behavioral effects as longer and more intense meditation practices.
Meditation is a mindfulness practice with roots in Buddhist and Hindu cultures, involving the intentional cultivation of a heightened state of awareness and focus on thoughts and emotions. Numerous studies have explored the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of meditation, investigating its potential to improve mood, reduce stress, and impact various cognitive functions in both normal and clinical populations. Early studies focused on EEG patterns in experienced meditators, while more recent research has included cross-sectional studies and randomized controlled experiments involving individuals with mental health issues. The findings have indicated a range of benefits, including enhanced emotional regulation, attention, and self-awareness, as well as decreased depression, anxiety, pain, and substance abuse.
However, there is limited information regarding the effects of shorter and less intensive meditation practices. Some evidence suggests that even shorter practices may offer cognitive and functional benefits comparable to longer and more intense meditation practices. This study aimed to explore the cognitive and physiological changes associated with brief daily meditation practice and examine the time course of these effects.
The researchers hypothesized that meditation would improve affective state, executive functions related to the prefrontal cortex (such as attention, working memory, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility), and recognition memory and behavioral pattern separation related to the hippocampus. Furthermore, they predicted that meditators would demonstrate enhanced emotional regulation in response to acute psychosocial stress. The study also examined the relationship between changes in the stress response due to meditation and changes in psychological state and cognitive function.
The study recruited healthy adults aged 18 to 45 with no prior meditation experience. Participants were randomly assigned to either a 13-minute daily guided meditation program or a 13-minute daily podcast listening session for eight weeks. Cognitive functioning and mood state were assessed at the beginning, the 4-week mark, and the end of the intervention. Baseline saliva cortisol samples were collected to measure physiological stress levels, and the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was conducted to assess the acute stress response after the eight-week program.
Baseline values for mood questionnaires, cognitive tasks, and cortisol measurements were similar between the two groups. On average, the experimental group engaged in guided meditations 5.5 times per week, while the control group listened to podcasts 6.4 times per week.
The findings revealed that 8 weeks of daily 13-minute meditation led to decreased negative mood states, including reductions in mood disturbance, anxiety, and fatigue scores. It also resulted in improved attention, working memory, and recognition memory compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the meditation group exhibited a reduced behavioral anxiety response to the TSST.
The study demonstrates that brief daily meditation practice over an 8-week period can lead to significant improvements in mood states and cognitive functioning compared to a control group. These findings suggest that even short meditation practices can yield positive behavioral effects. The results align with previous studies that examined more intense meditation regimes and indicate that the duration of daily meditation needed to observe significant benefits in non-experienced meditators may be lower than previously thought.
The study also sheds light on the relationship between meditation, emotional regulation, and cognitive function. The researchers found that changes in emotional regulation due to meditation were more strongly associated with improved affective state than with cognitive enhancements. This highlights the importance of emotional well-being in the context of meditation and suggests that meditation may primarily influence mood and emotional resilience.
The study's hypotheses regarding the effects of meditation on prefrontal and hippocampal functioning were partially supported. While previous research has primarily focused on the prefrontal cortex's improvements, this study explored the impact of meditation on memory functions associated with the hippocampus. The results indicated that meditation had positive effects on both attention and working memory, which are related to the prefrontal cortex. Additionally, recognition memory and behavioral pattern separation, linked to the hippocampus, also showed improvement.
Furthermore, the study examined the physiological effects of meditation by measuring cortisol levels. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a key component of the stress response system, was considered. Previous research has shown that meditation can modulate the activity of the HPA axis and its associated brain regions. In this study, baseline cortisol levels did not significantly differ between the meditation and control groups. However, future research could explore the effects of meditation on acute stress responses and cortisol reactivity in greater detail.
The findings contribute to our understanding of the potential benefits of meditation, particularly for individuals who are new to the practice. The study suggests that even short, practical meditation sessions can yield positive effects on mood, attention, working memory, and recognition memory. These benefits are similar to those observed in longer and more intense meditation practices. Thus, individuals who are unable to commit to longer sessions may still experience significant improvements in well-being through brief daily meditation.
The study has several implications for future research and clinical applications. It highlights the importance of considering emotional regulation as a key outcome measure when studying meditation's effects. Moreover, the study's findings may encourage the integration of shorter meditation practices into various settings, such as educational institutions, workplaces, and healthcare facilities, to promote well-being and cognitive function.
In conclusion, this research study provides valuable insights into the effects of short, practical meditation practices on cognitive functioning and emotional well-being. The results suggest that even a daily 13-minute meditation session can lead to improvements in mood, attention, working memory, and recognition memory. These findings support the notion that shorter meditation practices can offer similar benefits to longer and more intense practices, emphasizing the accessibility and potential impact of meditation for individuals new to the practice.
Brief, daily meditation enhances attention, memory, mood, and emotional regulation in non-experienced meditators. (Behavioural Brain Research)